Cyberchondria Rising – What is the Term’s Meaning and History?

Yesterday the AMA news informed me that cyberchondria is on the rise. So it’s a good moment to consider the term’s meaning and history.

Cyberchondria is an unfounded health concern that develops upon searching the Internet for information about symptoms or a disease. A cyberchondriac is someone who surfs the Web about a medical problem and worries about it unduly.

Through Wikipedia, I located what might be the first reference to cyberchondria in a medical journal: a 2003 article in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. A section on the new diagnosis starts like this: “Although not yet in the Oxford English Dictionary, the word ‘cyberchondria’ has been coined to describe the excessive use of internet health sites to fuel health anxiety.” That academic report links back to a 2001 story in the Independent, “Are you a Cyberchondriac?”

Two Microsoft researchers, Ryen White and Eric Horvitz, authored a “classic” paper: Cyberchondria: Studies of the Escalation of Medical Concerns in Web Search. This academic paper, published in 2009, reviews the history of cyberchondria and results of a survey on Internet searches and anxiety.

Interesting that the term – coined in a newspaper story and evaluated largely by IT experts – has entered the medical lexicon. I wonder how the American Psychiatry Association will handle cyberchondria in the upcoming DSM-5.

 

Related Posts:

What is the Disease Control Rate in Oncology?

Last week I came upon a new term in the cancer literature: the Disease Control Rate. The DCR refers to the total proportion of patients who demonstrate a response to treatment.

In oncology terms: The DCR is the sum of complete responses (CR) + partial responses (PR) + stable disease (SD).

Another way of explaining it: Some people with cancer have measurable, growing tumors. For example, a man might have a sarcoma with multiple metastases in the lung that are evidently progressing. If the patient starts a new treatment and the lung mets don’t shrink but stop getting bigger, that might be considered a stabilizing effect from the therapy, and his response would be included in the DCR.

Related Posts:

What Is a Cancer Metastasis?

A metastasis refers to a lump of cancer cells that’s physically separated from the original tumor. A metastasis can be local, like when colon cancer spreads to a nearby lymph node in the gut, or distant, as when lung cancer cells generate tumors in the adrenal gland, liver, bone or brain.

Sometimes metastases cause serious damage in the organs where they’ve settled. For instance, brain “mets” can result in impaired thinking, personality changes, blindness or seizures. Liver metastases, if large enough, can result in hepatic (liver) failure. Bone mets can lead to anemia and other blood cell deficiencies if the marrow becomes filled with malignant cells instead of normal ones.

A common source of confusion is that when cancer moves from one body part to another, it’s still referred to by its site of origin.  For example, if breast cancer spreads to the liver or bone, it is still called breast cancer and most often treated as such. In general it’s the type of malignant cell, rather than the affected organ, that guides therapy.

Notes on usage: The plural is “metastases.” When someone has metastatic disease, that means their cancer has spread from the primary site to another. Oncologists don’t usually apply these terms to leukemia or lymphoma.

Related Posts:

What is a Cybrarian?

ML learned a new word on Twitter last week:

cybrarian: “a person whose job is to find, collect, and manage information that is available on the World Wide Web”

My source is the on-line, ever-handy Merriam-Webster dictionary.

(H/T to Dave deBronkart, who sent the term flying across cyberspace.)

—–

Related Posts:

Everybody’s Talking About Stem Cells

Last week, doctors injected embryonic stem cells into a human patient with an acute spinal cord injury. The procedure took place at Shepherd Center, a hospital and research center for spinal cord and brain injury in Atlanta, GA. The patient was the first to receive human stem cells derived from an embryo in an FDA-approved research protocol in the U.S.

The phase I trial, sponsored by Geron Corporation of Menlo Park, CA, is primarily intended to evaluate the treatment’s safety. The company has developed a way to culture and purify oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs – primitive neuronal cells) from human embryonic stem cells (h-ESCs). These precursor cells, obtained from human embryonic tissue, can be coaxed, at least in vitro, to develop into one of various mature cell types, including neurons).

So what defines stem cells?

Stem cells are considered pluripotent, meaning that they have the capacity to differentiate, or mature, into specialized, distinct cell forms depending on nearby cells and stimulatory molecules in their environment. Mature cells, by contrast, have already “decided” what kind of tissue they’ll grow into – whether that’s part of the eye, or the heart, liver tissue, nervous system or any other body component.

The idea behind stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury is to provide the wounded spine with fresh, primitive cells that might grow into neurons and replace those that have been damaged. The protocol is highly-experimental.

There are three major sources of human stem cells:

1. Adult stem cells are relatively abundant in the bone marrow.

2. Cord blood cells; as are found in the placenta and umbilical cord after delivery of a newborn;

3. Embryonic stem cells, as were used in this protocol, are typically removed from surplus material after IVF.

You can learn more about human stem cells on the NIH website here.

(and belated happy birthday, JL!)

Related Posts:

newsletter software
Get Adobe Flash player